Investigated effects of nanoparticles in plants

09/20/2016
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By Felipe Sanchez Band

( Informative Agency Conacyt ) .- Scientists from the Department of Plastics in Agriculture Research Center in Applied Chemistry ( CIQA ) study expressions and biochemical implications in plants as a result of using nanoparticles as growth promoters.

Currently, there is a notable increase in the production and application of nanoparticles, both metal and carbon derived, in agriculture, in order to seek greater plant growth. However, there have been cases in which the use of nanoparticles can affect the growth of various types of plants, physiological and biochemical changes result and consequently impact the production and quality of food. Given this scenario, the CIQA has sought to comprehensively develop nanoparticles that promote plant growth and develop other potential properties, but without damaging them internally.

“The first step is to see what is making the nanoparticle to the plant, we will apply and measure a physiological parameter that can be the height or leaf area. So there we study what made internally, what are the biochemical changes involved in the growth of this plant are, what caused a change, either positively or negatively was given, “said Dr. Ileana Vera Reyes, professor Conacyt commissioned the Department Plastics in Agriculture CIQA. 

Currently, says the researcher, the interaction of nanomaterials with plants has not been studied enough and represents a major area of ​​opportunity. Along with the beneficial effects of nanomaterials on crops, there are several reports of uptake, translocation, accumulation, biotransformation and toxicity in different species of plants, which is essential to know the biochemical responses of plants by the application of nanoparticles .

“We must find an explanation of the interactions of nanoparticles with plants, how come, what are the mechanisms of signal activated are to obtain a cellular response involved in any physiological change, learn more about biochemical and molecular consequences of these, namely aspects of what organelles are involved in transport and storage and if possible to find part of the structure of other proteins, etc., “explained the researcher.

Nanofertilizantes

Dr. Vera Reyes said that the proper use of nanoparticles promotes plant growth by acting as nanofertilizantes, besides having antimicrobial activities, thereby reducing the use of chemical pesticides. These properties, and the study of expressions and internal implications of the plant by the application of nanomaterials, ensure a quality product for farmers who benefit holistically plants.

“Nanoparticles are growth promoters, but can also protect against certain phytopathogenic fungi and bacteria and reduce application of chemical pesticides that affect plants, ie, the nanoparticle protects helps your culture and does not affect the plant. For this analysis are important plants because assure you that is not being affected, because we get all the answers internally to the application of nanoparticles, “said the specialist.

As for the future of the project, Dr. Vera Reyes indicated that several aspects have to study plants.

“We now have some basic tests at the protein level, we are working with proteomic analysis and what we would do is metabolomics studies and genotoxicity of nanoparticles. In parallel, we will conduct studies with other collaborators where use nanoparticles as inducers of plant secondary metabolism, we will seek to induce systemic resistance and think, in the future, in products based on some nanoparticles “has completed the doctor.

Finally, the researcher said that Mexico needs to start working with new technologies to promote the development of agriculture.

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